Horizontal agreements for the exchange of competitively sensitive information may, depending on the circumstances, be considered horizontal anti-competitive agreements and fall under Article 4 of the Competition Act. Whether an agreement is legally binding does not matter in the context of the assessment of competition law; See the `horizontal guidelines`: guidelines on the applicability of Article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union to horizontal cooperation agreements (OJ L 199 of 11.12.2001, p. 1). OJ C 11, 14.1.2011, p. 1-72). With regard to vertical agreements, the main exemption by EU category is the category exemption for vertical agreements, which excludes many vertical agreements from the prohibitions covered in Chapter I and Article 101 (see exemption by category for vertical agreements). agreement between the actual definition or definition of potential competitors, i.e. companies operating at the same level of the production or distribution chain. B and which include research and development, production, purchasing or marketing. Horizontal agreements can restrict competition, particularly when they involve price fixing or market-sharing measures, or when the definition of market economy services resulting from horizontal cooperation has negative market effects in terms of price, production, innovation or product diversity and quality.
On the other hand, horizontal cooperation can be a way to share risks, reduce costs, pool know-how and accelerate innovation. For small and medium-sized enterprises in particular, cooperation can be an important means of adapting to the changing market. There are several exemptions per EU category that can apply to horizontal agreements (see the impact of Chapter I or Article 101 bans on horizontal agreements?). The UK Competition Authority, the Competition Authority for Markets, has the power to withdraw the category exemption for vertical agreements for specific agreements. Although it is unlikely to exercise this right. The European Commission also has the power to remove the category exemption for vertical agreements in certain situations. EU competition law provides for several category exemptions that exclude certain regimes from the Article 101 ban. These category exemptions also apply to agreements that may be covered by the Chapter I ban. The main and most frequent types of anti-competitive horizontal agreements are price fixing, supply manipulation, market allocation/distribution and refusal of transactions (group boycott). These horizontal agreements generally have the form of an agreement, which is explained in a separate subcategory. Horizontal agreements are restrictive agreements between competitors operating at the same level of the production and distribution chain.